The Islamic philosophical tradition prides itself over a rich history of illustrious names that have contributed to the development of Islamic thought throughout the ages. Thinkers such as Ibn Sina, Imam Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Ibn al Arabi and Allama Iqbal, henceforth referred to as Iqbal, are some of the renowned Muslims personalities who have advanced Islamic thought. The present article entitled ‘Intellectual Knowledge as Expounded by Allama Iqbal’ discusses the modes of knowledge that are traditionally considered to be non-religious, non-mystical and non-intitutional. The article discusses the empirical and rational modes of intellectual knowledge that will be analysed in light of the revolutionary thought of Iqbal.

In the world media, “terror” and “Islam” are frequently mentioned; phrases such “Islamic extremists” and “Muslim Terrorists” have become a commonplace.  There is a complete chaos of terminology, particularly when it comes to terms associated with Islam. This has been furthered by a number of factors including the hijacking of the Islamic teachings by a handful of insane people who have interpreted Islam according to their own whims. Not to mention, there are also some who do not identify themselves as Muslims, either due to a lack of understanding or to create propaganda, have attached new meanings to the Qur’an and the sacred Prophetic traditions.  Through various media platforms, these forces have disseminated their warped interpretations of Islamic terminology throughout the world misleading the Muslims and non-Muslims communities.  Take the wok “Jihad” which has been wrongly portrayed to mean indiscriminate murder or holy war whereas it has very unique and multidimensional connotations.  The literal meaning of the word Jihad is to strive for some objective, which can be in many dimensions, some off which are:

The faith of Islam has become grossly misunderstood today.  The role of Muslim clerics, Imams and leaders is looked through the prism of suspicion.  On one hand, Islamic religious institutions are considered untrustworthy in developing moderate and peaceful British citizens.  On the other hand, we have many misconceptions about Islam, which are being fuelled by irresponsible forces.  This negative portrayal warrants a very intellectual and ideological response based on the authentic evidence from the classical Islamic resources to counter the negative narrative.  One of the leading and world-renowned Islamic Scholars ‘Shaykh-ul-Islam’ Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri who has intellectually and theologically challenged extremist ideology throughout his whole life is now launching a Islamic Curriculum on Peace and Counter-Terrorism, accompanied by around 25 text books, which will annihilate any superficial justifications furnished by the extremists and allow the young Muslims to become better equipped to counter the extremist narrative both online and in their communities.

According to the political philosophy of the renowned 18th century thinker Rousseau,(1) individual sovereignty as to certain rights and freedoms is transferred from each individual to the state. In return, the state ensures the granting, protecting and preserving of certain rights that are given to each individual of the state. Thus, individuals become citizens.(2) This concept is known as 'The Social Contract' and plays a pivotal role in the modern nation-state theory.(3) Based on this mutually understood premise, it is a legal and constitutional responsibility of the state to uphold and protect the respective rights to the citizens of the state.

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